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In 3 quasi-experiments using intact classrooms and 1 true experiment using random assignment, students completed partially complete graphic organizers (GOs) or studied complete GOs that covered course content. The partial task led to increased overall examination performance in all experiments. Also, the authors measured students' note-taking style (linear vs. graphic) at the beginning and end of the course. In all experiments, GO note taking increased. The increases were greatest when the authors presented the partial task in a computer environment with a timed, forced-choice task. Implications for using the partial GO task in the classroom, as well as future note-taking research directions are discussed.


Robinson, D. H., Katayama, A. D., Beth, A., Odom, S., Hsieh, Y. P., & Vanderveen, A. (2006). Increasing text comprehension and graphic note taking using a partial graphic organizer. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(2), 103-111.

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Published Date



Reading Instruction

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


Special Education Teacher

Grade Level

Higher Education/Adult Learning