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Many students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) and students who are SDHH with additional disabilities (SDHH+) require accommodations for equal access to classroom instruction and assessment, particularly in mainstreamed educational settings where spoken English is the primary language. Unfortunately, specific practice recommendations for SDHH+ and their unique needs are often lacking in the research literature. This article presents findings regarding accommodation use by SDHH and SDHH+ from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. Initial analysis found no differences in accommodations use of SDHH and SDHH+. However, analysis that compared specific additional disability groups with the larger overall SDHH group did find differences in accommodations use for two SDHH+ groups: students who had a learning disability and students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


Leppo, R., Cawthon, S., & Bond, M. (2013). Including deaf and hard-of-hearing students with co-occurring disabilities in the accommodations discussion. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. Advance online publication. Retrieved from

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Related Project

Published Date


Funding Source

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs


Educational Access
Special Education/Learning Disabilities

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


Special Education Teacher