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Adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle with comprehending complex text structures used in middle and high school content-area classes (Williams, 1998, 2000). Compared to students in the upper elementary grades, middle school students are expected to read greater amounts of information across subject areas (Gajria, Jitendra, Sood, & Sacks, 2007). The combination of increased quantity of reading coupled with increased text difficulty presents challenges for educators and students in the middle grades. Findings from the National Center for Educational Statistics (Perie, Grigg, & Donahue, 2005) revealed that 27% of Grade 8 students struggle with comprehension of grade-level material. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR; Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001) is a set of reading comprehension strategies paired with a cooperative learning component that provides access to these difficult texts for adolescents with LD.


Swanson, E. A., & Solis, M. (2011, January). Collaborative strategic reading for adolescents with LD. LD Forum.

Related Institute

Related Project

Published Date


Funding Source

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences


Features of Effective Instruction
Reading Instruction

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


General Education Classroom Teacher
School Administrator
Special Education Teacher

Grade Level

Middle School
High School