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This article describes the results of a large nationwide study of accommodations use by students who are d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing (SDHH) in both secondary and postsecondary settings. Participants were nearly 1,350 professionals who work with a diverse group of SDHH in a variety of roles including as educators, administrators, interpreters, vocational rehabilitation agency staff, and allied service providers. Data included both a national survey and a series of focus groups conducted with professionals over the course of a year. The authors base their discussion around three aspects of accommodations use: availability (how often an accommodation was available for use), quality (how often the accommodation was considered to be of high quality), and consistency (the degree of reliability or predictability in the provision of an accommodation). The analysis yielded two main findings, that (a) interpreter use is fairly consistent across all settings and (b) remote interpreter, speech-to-text, and note-taking services are used less frequently in secondary settings as compared to postsecondary settings. Results are discussed in light of the crucial nature of accommodations during the transition into a variety of educational, training, and employment options for SDHH.


Cawthon, S., & Leppo, R. (2013). Accommodations quality for students who are d/Deaf or hard-of-hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 158(4), 438–452.

Related Institute

Published Date



Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Educational Access

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


General Education Classroom Teacher
Higher Education Instructor
School Administrator

Grade Level

High School
Higher Education/Adult Learning