Mathematics and Science Institute for Students With Special Needs

MSTAR Interventions

Instructional Background

Preskills Knowledge and Skills for Students

  • Simplify fractions to the lowest terms.
  • Model fractional relationships.
  • Generate equivalent fractions.
  • Master basic multiplication and division facts through 12 x 12.

Mathematics Content Knowledge for Teachers

  • Ratios compare 2 quantities, such as boys to girls (people) or red to yellow (apples).
  • Rates are a specific type of ratio that compares 2 different quantities, such as miles per gallon or dollars per pound.
  • Unit rates compare a quantity to 1 unit, such as miles per gallon, and use the words “per” or “for.” Examples: 3 oranges for a dollar, 2 cookies per student.
  • Ratios and rates can be written with a division bar, with the word “to,” or with a colon. Example:    , 2 to 3, or 2:3.
  • Ratios and rates can be simplified, using the same procedure as fractions.