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67 Total Resources

Malingering detection in a mentally retarded forensic population

Publication Year: 1998

Description

Article describes the evaluation of 39 patients in a forensic mental hospital who were administered several tests designed to detect malingering (or the exaggeration or fabrication of physical and/or mental symptoms) and who were given the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The finding of this evaluation was that when the patients were administered the SIRS and the specific tests of: Dot Counting, Memory for Fifteen Items, and the M-Test, the accuracy of these assessments was 100%.  These results are discussed in the article in terms of how they can compliment interdisciplinary team diagnosis with psychological tests for malingering.

Citation

Hayes, J. S., Hale, D. B., & Gouvier, W. D. (1998). Malingering detection in a mentally retarded forensic population. Applied Neuropsychology, 5(1), 33-36.

Topics: Intellectual Disabilities, Malingering

Audiences: Attorneys, Psychologists

Populations: Adults


Developmental disability, crime, and criminal justice: A literature review

Publication Year: 2003

Description

Paper begins with a review of the current literature on the topic of developmental disability, crime, and criminal justice.  It then explores the issue of competence and fitness to stand trial, including a discussion of the treatment of, and provision of programs for, offenders with developmental disabilities. Next, the controversial issue of using capital punishment for offenders with developmental disabilities is reviewed.  The paper concludes with an analysis of the admission and screening data at the Surrey Pre-Trial Services Centre in British Columbia.

Citation

Hasssan, S., Gordon, R. M. (2003). Developmental disability, crime, and criminal justice: A literature review. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Simon Fraser University Criminology Research Centre.

Topics: Competency, Developmental Disabilities

Audiences: Attorneys, Law Enforcement, Mental Health Professionals, Psychologists

Populations: Adults


Best practices in the assessment of adaptive behavior

Publication Year: 2008

Description

Chapter focuses on adaptive behavior assessment as an important component of data-based, decision-making/problem-solving models of school psychological services for students with disabilities and other learning and behavior problems.  Specific assessment methodologies are described along with their respective benefits and limitations.  Additionally, the chapter describes and classifies the types of adaptive behavior difficulties that are most frequently associated with specific disabilities (e.g., intellectual disabilities and autism). The chapter concludes with a discussion of best practices for school psychologists to use in assessing students' adaptive behaviors.

Citation

Harrison, P. L., & Raineri, G. (2008). Best practices in the assessment of adaptive behavior. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (605-615). Bethesda, MD.: National Association of School Psychologists.

Topics: Adaptive Behavior, Assessment/Diagnosis, Professional Practice

Audiences: Psychologists, Teachers

Populations: Adolescents


The social context of capital murder: Social histories and the logic of mitigation

Publication Year: 1995

Description

Article examines what the author sees as our society's denial of humanity for persons who commit capital murder and explores how a confluence of elements present in a perpetrator's social history, such as poverty, abuse, neglect, and failure, can create situations that make capital violence seem almost inevitable.

Citation

Haney, C. (1995). The social context of capital murder: Social histories and the logic of mitigation. Santa Clara Law Review, 35, 547-609.

Topics: Cultural Considerations/Issues, Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Mitigation Topics/Issues

Audiences: Attorneys, Law Enforcement

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Condemning the other in death penalty trials: Biographical racism, structural mitigation, and the empathic divide

Publication Year: 2004

Description

Article discusses three points: first, that most analyses of racial discrimination in the administration of the death penalty are not able to address the effects of many of the most pernicious forms of racism in American society that characterize the life histories of so many African American capital defendants; second, the role of this form of racism in the lives of capital defendants provides a built-in argument against imposing the death penalty on African-American capital defendants; and third, a particular kind of racially discriminatory death sentencing comes about as a result of an "empathic divide" that exists between many white jurors and African American defendants.

Citation

Haney, C. (2004). Condemning the other in death penalty trials: Biographical racism, structural mitigation, and the empathic divide. DePaul Law Review, 53(4), 1557-1589.

Topics: Attitudes/Misconceptions, Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General

Audiences: Advocacy Groups, Attorneys

Populations: Adults


Lessons from the Atkins decisions for the next AAMR manual

Publication Year: 2006

Description

Chapter addresses the need for the 2002 American Association on Mental Retardation definition of MR to be revised in order to make the disability's diagnosis less arbitrary and artificial.  Additionally, it suggests that the new definition reduce the emphasis placed on IQ test scores and include a definition of adaptive functioning that is more observable and in keeping with the adaptive behaviors expected to be exhibited by individuals with MR.

Citation

Greenspan, S., & Switzky, H. (2006). Lessons from the Atkins decisions for the next AAMR manual. In H. Switzky, & S. Greenspan (Eds.), What is mental retardation?: Ideas for an evolving disability in the the 21st Century. (pp. 281-300). Washington, D.C.: American Association on Intellectual  & Developmental Disabilities.

Topics: Adaptive Behavior, Assessment/Diagnosis, Intellectual Disabilities, Intelligence Functioning/IQ Testing, Professional Practice

Audiences: Attorneys, Judges, Psychologists, Forensic Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Predicting future reconviction in offenders with intellectual disabilities: The predictive efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR—20

Publication Year: 2007

Description

Study examines the efficacy of three risk-assessment instruments: the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide; the Psychopathy Checklist--Screening Version; and the History, Clinical, Risk Management--20, in predicting violent and repeat offending in offenders with mental disorders and a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities.

Citation

Gray, N. S., Fitzgerald, S., Taylor, J., MacCulloch, M. J., & Snowden, R. J. (2007). Predicting future reconviction in offenders with intellectual disabilities: The predictive efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR--20. Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 474-479.

Topics: Assessment/Diagnosis, Intellectual Disabilities, Psychiatric/Mental Health Issues

Audiences: Law Enforcement, Mental Health Professionals, Psychologists

Populations: Adults


Tethering the elephant: Capital cases, IQ, and the Flynn Effect

Publication Year: 2006

Description

Article discusses how the Flynn effect (which is characterized by IQ gains in the same test over time), affects the ways in which the results of IQ tests can be analyzed.  To help provide some standardization in the scores of one test over time, the article provides a fomula to convert IQ scores to the norms of that test at the time the test was taken.

Citation

Flynn, J. R. (2006). Tethering the elephant: Capital cases, IQ, and the Flynn Effect. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 12(2), 170-189.

Topics: Assessment/Diagnosis, Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Intelligence Functioning/IQ Testing, Professional Practice

Audiences: Attorneys, Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Searching for justice: The discovery of IQ gains over time

Publication Year: 1999

Description

Article explores ideas of how humane-egalitarian ideas fit with findings from the social sciences.  Specifically, the following four issues are addressed: the equation between IQ and intelligence, whether group potential is determined by a group's mean IQ, whether the Black-White IQ gap is genetic, and whether genes for IQ are highly correlated with class.

Citation

Flynn, J. R. (1999). Searching for justice: The discovery of IQ gains over time. American Psychologist, 54(1), 5-20.

Topics: Intelligence Functioning/IQ Testing, Professional Practice

Audiences: Advocacy Groups, Attorneys, Psychologists

Populations: Adults


Capital offenders and the death sentence: A scandal that must be addressed

Publication Year: 2007

Description

Article discusses the validity of using the WAIS-III to test offenders on death row, countering earlier objections made by Roger Moore about the assessment tool.

Citation

Flynn, J. R. (2007). Capital offenders and the death sentence: A scandal that must be addressed. Psychology in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 3-7.

Topics: Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Intellectual Disabilities, Intelligence Functioning/IQ Testing

Audiences: Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Life, death, and IQ; it’s much more than just a score: The dilemma of the mentally retarded on death row

Publication Year: 2005

Description

Article addresses the Supreme Court's handling of the issue of mental retardation and the death penalty since Atkins v. Virginia and explains common pitfalls forensic psychologists are likely to encounter in court cases requiring diagnosis of mental retardation.

Citation

Fabian, J. M., (2005). Life, death, and IQ; it's much more than just a score: The dilemma of the mentally retarded on death row. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 5(4), 1-36.

Topics: Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Intellectual Disabilities, Professional Practice

Audiences: Attorneys, Mental Health Professionals, Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Implications of Atkins v. Virginia: Issues in defining and diagnosing mental retardation

Publication Year: 2008

Description

Article reviews the implications of the 2002 Supreme Court decision in Atkins v. Virginia for the assessment and diagnosis of mental retardation and makes suggestions for forensic psychology practice.

Citation

Everington, C., & Olley, J. G. (2008). Implications of Atkins v. Virginia: Issues in defining and diagnosing mental retardation. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 8(1), 1-23.

Topics: Assessment/Diagnosis, Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Intellectual Disabilities, Professional Practice

Audiences: Attorneys, Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Misuse of the Street Survival Skills Questionnaire (SSSQ) for evaluating the adult adaptive behavior of criminal defendants with intellectual disability claims

Publication Year: 2008

Description

Article presents reasons why the Street Survival Skills Questionnaire (SSSQ) should not be used to establish the adult adaptive behavior of criminal offenders who have filed a claim of intellectual disability.  Major reasons advanced for not using the SSSQ are:it was normed with a skewed norming sample; it is designed for the purpose of supporting vocational planning with persons who are intellectually disabled; it only assesses a narrow group of behaviors for a select segment of the population; and it is unable to detect significant deficits in adaptive behavior.

Citation

Denkowski, G. C., & Denkowski, K. M. (2008). Misuse of the Street Survival Skills Questionnaire (SSSQ) for evaluating the adult adaptive behavior of criminal defendants with intellectual disability claims. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(2), 144-149.

Topics: Adaptive Behavior, Assessment/Diagnosis, Intellectual Disabilities

Audiences: Advocacy Groups, Attorneys, Law Enforcement, Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Adaptive behavior assessment of criminal defendants with a mental retardation claim

Publication Year: 2008

Description

Article introduces a systematic approach for assessing the adaptive behavior of criminal defendants which generates data that are largely free of socioculturally-based score suppression, i.e., lower scores on adaptive behavior assessments of criminal defendants that are primarily the result of background and lifestyle influences.

Citation

Denkowski, G. C., & Denkowski, K. M. (2008). Adaptive behavior assessment of criminal defendants with a mental retardation claim.  American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 26(3), 43-61.

Topics: Adaptive Behavior, Assessment/Diagnosis, Intellectual Disabilities

Audiences: Attorneys, Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


People with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system: Victims and suspects

Publication Year: 2005

Description

Fact sheet discusses how individuals with disabilities might come into contact with the criminal justice system either as victims or as offenders and the special rights that these individuals have as a result of landmark cases such as Atkins v. Virginia.

Citation

Davis, L. A. (2005). People with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system: Victims and suspects. The Arc: Suspects, Offenders, and Defendants. Retrieved from http://www.thearc.org/page.aspx?pid=2458

Topics: Criminal Justice System - General, Intellectual Disabilities, Rights

Audiences: Advocacy Groups, Families, Teachers

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Disorganized crime: Learning disability and the criminal justice system

Publication Year: 1998

Description

Article examines the discrepancy that exists between the number of school-aged children diagnosed with learning disabilities and the number of individuals in the criminal justice system who qualify as having specific to pervasive learning disabilities.  Specifically, the Susceptibility Theory's hypothesis for explaining this discrepancy is explored in the article, in which the cognitive, language, social and personal differences  of individuals with learning disabilities are linked to their presence in the criminal justice system.

Citation

Cowardin, N. (1998). Disorganized crime: Learning disability and the criminal justice system. Criminal Justice, 13(2), 11-16.

Topics: Criminal Justice System - General, Learning Disabilities

Audiences: Attorneys, Families, Psychologists, Teachers

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence, incidence, and remission of aggressive behaviour and related factors

Publication Year: 2009

Description

Study analyzes the prevalence of aggressive behavior in adults with intellectual disabilities and explores the presence and absence of these behaviors during different periods in an adult with intellectual disabilities' lifetime.

Citation

Cooper, S. A., Smiley, E., Jackson, A., Finlayson, J., Allan, L., Mantry, D., & Morrison, J. (2009). Adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence, incidence, and remission of aggressive behaviour and related factors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(3), 217-232.

Topics: Behavioral Issues, Intellectual Disabilities

Audiences: Attorneys, Families, Psychologists

Populations: Adults


The difficulty of basing death penalty eligibility on IQ cutoff scores for mental retardation

Publication Year: 2003

Description

Article examines how fluctuations in IQ scores across a person's life due to the Flynn Effect can have significant implications for death penalty deliberations and uses findings to argue why MR diagnoses should not be based solely on IQ scores and adaptive functioning reports.

Citation

Ceci, S. J., Scullin, M., & Kanaya, T. (2003). The difficulty of basing death penalty eligibility on IQ cutoff scores for mental retardation. Ethics & Behavior, 13(1), 11-17.

Topics: Assessment/Diagnosis, Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Intellectual Disabilities, Intelligence Functioning/IQ Testing

Audiences: Attorneys, Psychologists, Teachers

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the corrections system: Potential screening strategies

Publication Year: 2004

Description

Article describes the characteristics and traits associated with fetal alcohol syndrome and how they increase the probability that a person with this disorder will come into contact with the criminal justice system.  Article then presents four screening strategies that can be used by corrections systems to correctly identify the disorder in prison populations.

Citation

Burd, L., Martsolf, J. T., Juelson, T. (2004). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the corrections system: Potential screening strategies. Journal of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome International, 2(e1).

Topics: Criminal Justice System - General, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Audiences: Law Enforcement, Psychologists

Populations: Adolescents, Adults


Ethical and professional demands for forensic mental health professionals in the post-Atkins Era

Publication Year: 2003

Description

Article explores five legal concerns related to the identification of individuals as having intellectual disabilities in capital cases: (a) How ethical are correctional psychologists when conducting the assessments? (b) How objective are the psychologists when they determine that an individual has an intellectual disability? (c) How do the general national norms for IQ tests relate to the lower IQ scores found in inmate populations? (d) How should individuals in secure environments for a long time be evaluated in terms of their adaptive functioning? (e) How can the determination be made whether or not the convicted  individual is falsely claiming to be intellectually disabled?

Citation

Brodsky, S. L. & Galloway, V. A. (2003). Ethical and professional demands for forensic mental health professionals in the post-Atkins Era. Ethics & Behavior, 13(1), 3-9.

Topics: Adaptive Behavior, Assessment/Diagnosis, Death Penalty/Capital Offenses - General, Intellectual Disabilities, Intelligence Functioning/IQ Testing

Audiences: Attorneys, Psychologists

Populations: Adults